Decrease in the Implementation of the Death Penalty or Increase in Restrictions on Access to Information?: Monitoring Report on the Status of the Death Penalty in Egypt during the Year 2023

During the year 2023, the Egyptian Front for Human Rights (EFHR) continued to observe the Egyptian authorities implementing, issuing and upholding death sentences for individuals in criminal cases and others on political grounds, despite a noticeable decline in the number of executions carried out this year compared to previous years, and a relative decrease in the number of death sentences compared to the previous year. This observation is based on tracking and monitoring news related to the death penalty in various media outlets, as well as communication with some families and lawyers involved in these cases.

According to the monitoring conducted by the Egyptian Front on the status of the death penalty in 2023, Egyptian courts issued death sentences for at least 348 individuals (including 16 individuals in political cases), and the Court of Cassation upheld death sentences for at least 27 individuals (including 3 individuals in political cases). EFHR also documented the execution of death sentences for at least 8 individuals in criminal cases during the year, a significantly lower number compared to previous years, such as 126 executions in the year 2020, for example.

The Egyptian Front believes that the statistics on the implementation of the death penalty for this year raise several questions about the real reasons behind this decline, which egyptian authorities need to respond to and clarify. With dozens of cases where death sentences have been upheld from previous years, Is this decline in monitoring related to the reduced implementation of the death penalty in political cases, which are often identified through their families/lawyers? Or is it due to restrictions imposed by security agencies on access to information about executions from within new detention facilities, including new reform and rehabilitation/prison centers?

Compared to the previous year, the numbers of death sentences, Court of Cassation affirmations, and executions in 2023 have significantly decreased. Egyptian courts issued at least 348 death sentences compared to at least 538 death sentences in 2022. The authorities executed at least 8 individuals compared to at least 30 executions in the previous year. The Court of Cassation upheld death sentences, at least 27 sentences were upheld compared to at least 39 sentences in the previous year.

Despite continuous international and domestic calls to stop the death penalty or reconsider laws leading to death sentences, Egyptian authorities continue in using the death penalty in cases related to political violence, despite some containing violations of the fair trial guarantees for defendants in such cases, which are stipulated in international treaties and conventions. Egyptian courts also continue to issue death sentences in a large number of crimes, not just serious crimes, as Egyptian law allows for the death penalty in relation to 105 crimes specified in various Egyptian legislations such as Penal Code No. 58 of 1937 and its amendments, Military Judiciary Law No. 25 of 1966, Arms and Ammunition Law No. 394 of 1954, and even the Anti-Drug Law No. 182 of 1960.

First: Execution of Death Sentences

EFHR has observed the execution by authorities of at least 8 individuals in at least 6 criminal cases, while no death sentences were carried out on individuals in political cases during the year.

Secondly: Death Sentences

EFHR has observed during the year 2023 the issuance by Egyptian civilian criminal courts of death sentences against no fewer than 348 individuals in at least 222 cases, including 16 individuals in 5 cases of political violence. These cases include: Case No. 2177/ 2022 North Cairo, where 6 individuals were sentenced to death on charges related to the case known as “New Egypt Group“; Case No. 182/ 2017 State Security Criminal Court, known as “Imbaba ISIS,” where one person was sentenced to death; as well as a death sentence issued after retrial in Case No. 451/ 2014 the Supreme State Security Court, known as “Kata’ib Helwan”. Additionally, there’s Case No. 335/ 2022 the State Security Criminal Court, known as “The Minya Terrorist group,” where 4 individuals received death sentences; and Case No. 1224/ 2021 the Supreme State Security Prosecution, known as “The Sudan group,” where 4 individuals were sentenced to death. This is in addition to the issuance of death sentences against 332 individuals in 217 criminal cases.

Thirdly: Upholding of Death Sentences

EFH has observed the Court of Cassation uphloding at least 27 death sentences in 20 cases during the year 2023. Among them are 3 sentences in a single political case, known as the “Zagazig group” case, and 24 sentences in 19 criminal cases.

Fourthly: Comparison between Execution Statistics during Previous Years 2014-2023

Fifth: Comparison between Death Penalty Sentences Statistics during Previous Years 2014-2023

Leave A Reply

where to buy viagra buy generic 100mg viagra online
buy amoxicillin online can you buy amoxicillin over the counter
buy ivermectin online buy ivermectin for humans
viagra before and after photos how long does viagra last
buy viagra online where can i buy viagra